A body of scientific evidence has shown that men who are circumcised are less likely to contract HIV than men who are uncircumcised. Post-exposure prophylaxis refers to taking some drugs quickly after being exposed to HIV, while the virus is in a person's body but before the virus has established itself. In both cases, the drugs would be the same as those used to treat persons with HIV, and the intent of taking the drugs would be to eradicate the virus before the person becomes irreversibly infected. Post-exposure prophylaxis is recommended in anticipated cases of HIV exposure, such as if a nurse somehow has blood-to-blood contact with a patient in the course of work, or if someone without HIV requests the drugs immediately after having unprotected sex with a person who might have HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis is sometimes an option for HIV-negative persons who feel that they are at increased risk of HIV infection, such as an HIV-negative person in a serodiscordant relationship with an HIV-positive partner. Current research in these agents include drug development, efficacy testing, and practice recommendations for using drugs for HIV prevention.
10 Major Factors That Influence the Spread of HIV/AIDS in the Developing World
HIV/AIDS | UNICEF Zambia
We examined the association of substance abuse treatment with sexual and drug use risk behaviours among HIV-infected persons with a history of alcohol problems using a standardized questionnaire regarding sexual and drug use risk behaviours, demographics, substance use, and use of substance abuse treatment. We defined substance abuse treatment services as any of the following in the past 6 months: 12 weeks in a half-way house or residential facility; 12 visits to a substance abuse counsellor or mental health professional; day treatment for at least 30 days; or participation in any methadone maintenance program. Our three outcome variables of high-risk behaviour were the Risk Assessment Battery sex-risk and drug-risk scores and high-risk sex behaviour which included any of the following: inconsistent condom use; having more than one sexual partner; and exchanging sex for money or drugs. Although the opportunity exists to address HIV risk behaviours in the setting of substance abuse treatment, effective institutionalization of this challenging behaviour change effort has not yet been realized.
Women and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa
Similarly, the share of pre-school age children suffering from malnutrition remains extremely high in Africa relative to southeast Asia and Latin America, though not South Asia Sahn and Stifel, forthcoming. At the same time, recent research on the returns to investments in human resources finds that improvements in the health and nutrition contribute to increased productivity and higher incomes. This has been confirmed for Africa, for men and women and for the wage and non-wage sectors Glick and Sahn ; Schultz and Tansel ; Strauss
Metrics details. Southern Africa remains the region most severely affected by the epidemic. Women continue to bear the brunt of the epidemic with young women infected almost ten years earlier compared to their male counterparts. Epidemiological evidence suggests unacceptably high HIV prevalence and incidence rates among women. There is no magic bullet and behavior alone is unlikely to change the course of the epidemic.